The Role Of Motivation On OrganisationABSTRACT
It is generally observed that people develop at different rates and under different conditions and also have different tendencies or interests. Some of these are acquired by nature, others by nurture. Each individual is unique and so different individuals may react differently to different stimuli or even the same stimulus. Certain factors such as hormones, culture,geography, religion, economics, politics, intellect, ideology, motivation, instincts, etc, may contribute to our behaviour, habits, goals and achievements. What is true for an individual may also be true for a group of individuals, a body or an organization. Thus, different organizations operate at different levels, set different goals and even progress at different rates, thanks to the same factors enumerated above. However, this study pursues the role of motivation on organization.
The methodology adopted is mainly that of primary and secondary library research. No recourse is made to field research or the use of questionnaires. It attempts a critical appraisal of popular theories with the aim of maximizing output in an organization.
This research discovered that there is no really perfect or ideal theory of motivation. This is why most organizations find it difficult to maintain a steady rise in productivity. Every organization thrives on motivation, whether latent or obvious, intrinsic or extrinsic. The bane of most organizations lies in the application of this motivation, i.e., in recognizing,interpreting and directing it accordingly to achieve a desired goal. Among other things, we found out that properly motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. We discovered that properly motivated employees are more quality-oriented. Above all,motivated workers are more productive.
Motivation is all about improving performance. Temperament, skills, stamina, education, physiology, emotions, background/history, interests and psychic balance should all be put into consideration so as to avoid the error of subjecting every person to the same mould of motivation strategy. Nevertheless, motivation is a conditio sine qua non for any organization that has development as one of its objectives.
MEANING OF MOTIVATION
Motivation simply refers to the impetus which makes us realize set targets. It could also be said to be the driving force which causes or helps or energizes us to achieve goals. Poor motivation manifests itself in a lackluster, lackadaisical attitude. High motivation, on the other hand, results in a dogged determination, enthusiasm and zest in one’s battle for success. It could be intrinsic or extrinsic.
These theories examine different interests and preferences and how they influence us.Because human beings perceive things differently, there are many theories as well. They include the incentive theory; drive-reduction theories (cognitive-dissonance theory); need theories (content theories – Maslow’s need hierarchy theory and Herzberg’s two-factor theory; Alderfer’s ERG theory; and self-determination theory); broad theories; cognitive theories (goal-setting theory); models of behaviour change; unconscious motivation;intrinsic motivation and the 16 basic desires theory; reversal theory; motivating operation;attribution theory; consistency theory; control theory; extrinsic motivation; self-discrepancy theory; side bet theory; escape theory; expectancy theory; and so more.
CONSTRAINTS AND PROSPECTS OF THESE THEORIES
Theories seek to improve on pre-existing theories. Therefore, these theories are not left out in their shares of merits and demerits. Generally, they are based on scientific observations.However, they are at best highly probable because each human subject is unique. More so,man is composed of not just the known or observable elements, but the unknown or unobservable, the transcending or spiritual part, as well. So these hinder infallibility in judgement or certitude in prediction. As such, there lacks agreement or unison among psychologists as to which is the standard. Even in the scale of preferences of satisfaction, itis not uncommon to witness someone forfeiting a higher need according to the set paradigm, to satisfy a much lower one, and vice versa.
Be that as it may, these theories help shed light on why people behave in a particular way or refrain from doing so under the given circumstances. They help in planning or strategizing. They teach how to direct behavior towards particular goals. They lead to increased effort and energy. They determine what consequences are reinforcing. They minimize monotony. In addition, they lead to improved performance. They aid recognition of employees’ individual differences and preferences. They boost creativity, originality and competitiveness for optimum yield. Also, they make coordination and management more fruitful.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
From the foregoing, we deduce that proper motivation makes organizational goals come true more quickly and efficiently. It breeds excellence. It is the secret behind many a successful conglomerate. It comes in the form of money, praise, respect, recognition,empowerment, a sense of belonging, threats, social contacts, leisure, or some other appropriate measure.
Lastly, having noted that subordinates all react and interact uniquely, we strongly recommend that they be treated, managed and motivated accordingly. Motivation is a powerful tool in the work environment that can lead to employees working at their most efficient levels of production. Therefore, an effective leader must understand how to manage all characters, and more importantly, the manager must utilize avenues that allow room for employees to work, grow and find answers independently.