Throughout our lives we all ask endless questions about what we want to do in the future, whether short or long term, or whether it has to do with the study or work, questions like: What do we want? How do we want? How soon? and after we get what we wanted, what we do with it? These questions allow you to define the way we choose to reach a decision or another, may be trivial or momentous.
That is why “Motivation" is what guarantees us to be focused on what we want, and direct people toward getting the things they crave. You could say that all the processes and decisions that are made in the course of life, are subject to the degree of incentive or motivation you have. Hence the motivation is used as an educational tool by teachers in the case of schools or related to education, and in the case of the employers to improve workforce development.
Motivation consist of all the factors that cause, maintain and direct behavior toward a goal.
- "A set of reasons involved in an elective act according to their origin, they may be innate and physiological (hunger, sleep) or social nature; the latter are acquired during socialization, forming depending on interpersonal relationships, values, norms and social institutions."
- "A set of factors that drive a person to want to do something or achieve a goal, in the motivational process the stress produced by the perception of a lack moves the person to searching behavior and the effort to get concrete achievements to meet this need and reduce the stress"
- “General predisposition that directs behavior toward achieving a goal. It is this need that drives the people”.
Motivation has different forms of classification. So if it born from a need that is generated spontaneously is called: internal motivation; or it can be induced externally: external motivation. The first arises for no apparent reason, is the most intense and lasting. Another type of internal motivation which is not arises spontaneously, is induced by ourselves, that is, self-imposed and required be kept by achieving results. Other authors define motivation is positive and negative:
Other authors define motivation is positive and negative:
- Positive motivation. It is the constant desire to improve, always guided by a positive spirit; it
- Negative motivation. It is the obligation of the person enforced through punishments, threats, etc... family or society.
- Intrinsic Motivation (IM). When the person is still interest in the study or work, always showing improvement and personality in achieving their aims, aspirations and goals. Defined by the carrying out of an activity for the pleasure and satisfaction that one experiences while learning, exploring or trying to understand something new. Here several concepts such as exploration, curiosity, learning objectives, intrinsic intellectuality and finally the MI learning are related.
- Extrinsic Motivation (EM). Is extrinsic when the student is just trying to learn, not because he likes the subject or career if not for the advantages it offers. Contrary to the IM, extrinsic motivation is in a broad range of behaviors which are means to get a goal, not the goal in themselves.
Relationship between motivation and behavior
According to some researchers, there are three principles that explain the nature of human behavior. These are:
- The behavior is caused. That is, there is an internal or external root cause in human behavior resulting from the influence of heredity and environment.
- The behavior is motivated. The impulses, desires, needs or trends, are the reasons for the behavior.
- The behavior is goal-oriented. There is a purpose in all human behavior; because there is a cause that generates it. The behavior is always directed toward some goal.
The starting point of the motivational cycle is given by the emergence of a need. This need breaks the equilibrium state in which a person is producing a state of tension that leads the individual to develop a behavior likely to release tension and release of nonconformity and imbalance. If the behavior was effective, the need is satisfied, returning to its previous equilibrium state.
If we focus on motivation as a process to meet needs, arises what is called the motivational cycle, the stages are:
a) Homeostasis. It is a process by which the human body remains in a state of equilibrium.
b) Encouragement. It is when a stimulus appears and generates a need.
c) Necessity. This need (still unfulfilled) causes a state of tension.
d) State of stress. The voltage produces an impetus which gives rise to a behavior or action.
e) Behavior. when the behavior is active, goes to meet the need. This achieves the objective successfully.
f) Satisfaction. If the need is satisfied, the body returns to its equilibrium state, until another stimulus appears. All fulfillment is basically a release of tension allowing the return to the previous homeostatic balance.
However, to round out the basic concept, it should be noted that when a need is not satisfied within a reasonable time, it can lead to certain reactions such as:
a) Behavioral Disorganization (illogical and unexplained behavior).
b) Aggression (physical, verbal, etc.).
c) Emotional reactions (anxiety, distress, nervousness and other manifestations such as insomnia, digestive and circulatory problems etc...)
d) Line, apathy and disinterest.
For example, in schools we can see usually that when the routes which lead the objective of the student (grades, projections, goals, sports skills, etc...) are blocked they "surrender". The moral decay, they meet with friends and family to complain and, in some cases, take revenge or choose inappropriate behaviors, how to react to frustration.
School Motivation or Motivation for Learning
It is to encourage the student to learn, and create the necessary conditions to achieve their goals. Motivation refers to the condition or states that activate or energize the body, leading to a certain objective oriented behavior. Motivation is also considered as the process of action arouse, sustain the activity in progress and regular pattern of activity. The mechanism by which society shapes people to behave in a certain way, operate as follows:
1) The stimulus is activated.
2) The person responds to the stimulus.
3 ) The Company , through a senior member with ( parent, boss , priest, teacher , etc. . ) , Tries to teach , judge the behavior and decide if it is appropriate or not .
4) The reward (incentive or reward) is given to be positive achievement or participation. If deemed inadequate, provides a sanction (punishment).
5) reward increases the probability that in the future, when such stimuli, the default response is repeated. Each time this happens a reinforcement occurs and therefore increase the likelihood of the occurrence of the desired behavior. The pleasure or well-being that comes from having done work or have met with a set goal is the best encouragement you can get . Once instituted such behavior is said to have been learning.
6) The punishment is less effective; decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated with similar stimuli.
7) Learning is acquiring new or potential behavioral types. This scheme applies not only to teach social norms but also any kind of matter. Once you have learned something, it becomes part of the behavioral repertoire.
Unquestionably drawn to achieve goals and objectives in life humans must be motivated to do so. On several occasions the environment or the internal part of each of us, conspire to obtain rewards that allow us to stay motivated. That is why we must reinforce from childhood, the positive over that negative, to properly direct the attention of children to plan objectives, thus obtaining learning and knowledge. It will not be immediate, but it develops a process of assimilation, because it will be repeated many times.
That feeling of euphoria and triumph should be inculcated in children by teachers at the school level and by their families to formal level, so that is created in them an awareness to success , to the positive and to the individual and social improvement .